Stop Talking and Start Doing

Many of us continuously feel unhappy about the way we look. Spending hours on end complaining about the same problem to different people we encounter. After numerous negative experiences when trying to fit into your own clothes or having trouble shopping for clothes that fit, you finally decide to start “dieting”. For the first week you’re able to keep the motivation high, eating healthy and exercising regularly. However, on the second or third week it gets too difficult and you find your self back to old habits and once again complaining about the way you look!

We effortlessly spend a majority of our time complaining about how unhappy we are with our appearance, yet we choose not to actually create a change in our lives. Why wait for adverse events to take place in our health such as heart disease, diabetes or cancer to finally decide on making long lasting changes in our health. Studies have shown that the lifestyle choices you decide to make in your 20’s will have a significant impact on your health in your 40’s (1). It is also important to remember that the changes you make are long term rather then short term. Engaging in a “diet” such as no carb or juicing diet may work temporarily, but let’s face it such fad diets never last. More often then not, once you quit the diet not only do you gain the weight you lost back but you also get to keep a few extra pounds…. that you didn’t even ask for. To achieve long term changes we must enforce a healthy lifestyle, which is a way of life that allows one to enjoy food, exercise, and implement healthy habits on a daily basis for years to come.

In Islam we are discouraged to waste time but rather use every minute and second to doing good for your self or another as it is a blessing from God. With this being said, seize the opportunity to finally start and continue making healthy lifestyle choices. The prophet (S.A.W) said “There are two blessings which many people waste; health and free time” reported by Al-Bukari. However, we don’t value our health until it starts to deteriorate, so to keep us in check make it a point to visit an ill person or some one who is terminally ill. Not only will you be practicing the sunnah of the prophet (S.A.W) but you will also learn to appreciate your good health and take precaution in how you decide to nurture your body.

Here are 7 tips to jump start your healthy lifestyle;

  1. Maintain a balanced diet; eating healthy means having a variety of fruits, vegetables, protein, and carbs while keeping in mind the importance of moderation
  2. Clean up your kitchen as well as your secret stash; Set your self up for success by eliminating junk foods and any other unhealthy food choices as this will help reduce temptations
  3. Get active; every week try to at least complete 3-4 days of 30 minutes exercises or more
  4. Track your success; have a calendar where you can cross of each day that you committed to a healthy lifestyle, this will help keep you motivated to be persistent
  5. Keep the Goal in mind; right when your about to give up remind your self why you started in the first place
  6. Love the process; learn to appreciate your current self and the accomplishments you make along the way, whether it may be the reduced shortness of breath as you go up the stairs or the confidence you gain from achieving your goals
  7. Ditch the Scale; stop taking your weight on a daily or weekly basis, it will only drive you nuts simply focus on how you feel as you progress through these lifestyle changes and if you must weigh your self, do so once a month

It is obvious that change is never easy but it’s important to also remember that your circumstances won’t get better by chance but only through change. So take that first difficult step and don’t look back, I am sure you wont regret it!

Written By: Raya Haddass

Reference
  1. Liu, K., Daviglus, M. L., Loria, C. M., Colangelo, L. A., Spring, B., Moller, A. C., & Lloyd-Jones, D. M. (2012). Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age. Circulation125(8), 996-1004.

Inhale the Good and Exhale the Bad

September is almost over and we are well in to the school year. For those recent graduate, at this point reality has kicked in and now it’s time get serious on landing that first job into your field of study. And for the parents out there, you are now back to juggling work and your family life all at once. As we progress into fall, most of us get bombarded with numerous deadlines whether it be from work, school, or personal deadlines while also trying to stay on top of your busy lifestyle. We get caught up in this endless cycle and eventually start to feel very overwhelmed. However, in the mist of this cycle we need to remind our selves to take a moment to just breath and relax before we hit that breaking point.

The topic of relaxation was briefly discussed in the previous post on how can provide beneficial effects for diabetics in improving blood sugar levels. However, relaxation has shown to have numerous beneficial effects all throughout our body. With adequate time spent towards relaxation, individuals can also experience an increased immunity(1). This rise on immune cells allows your body to better protect you against disease. Relaxation has also proven to have positive effects on heart health through lowering blood pressure. This is achieved through the body’s ability to decrease psychological distress leading to a reduction on overall blood pressure, which can thus help reduce the risk of developing hypertension(2). Another benefit achieved through relaxation is, an evident reduction in feelings of depression and anxiety. When our body is in a state of relaxation, it allows us to produce hormone called endorphins which are responsible for relieving pain as well as elevating mood (3). Last but not least, research has shown improved fertility rates with women who are relaxed as opposed to women experiencing elevated levels of stressed (4).

Some of the many reasons we may find it difficult to relax is due to endless worries and stress about matters pertaining to our day to day lives. However, we must remember that we are only in this world for a temporary time, thus we must make this time worthwhile and prosper the blessing we have been gifted with. The Quraan it self mentions the importance of being grateful not only for the sake of Allah but for your own sake. This is mentioned by Prophet Suleman in Ayah 40 of Surah Al-Naml “This is by the Grace of my Lord to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for (the good of) his own self, and whoever is ungrateful, (he is ungrateful only for the loss of his own self). Certainly! My Lord is Rich (Free of all wants), Bountiful”. This sense of gratitude will provide us with a feeling of relief from pressures and anxiety through allowing us to appreciate what we already have.

 

Relaxation does not mean spending time lounging around watching tv. Its about having time set aside to engage your body, mind, and soul in a tension free state, where all of you experiences reduced stimulation as a pose to when you are stressed. Here are 5 ways you can engage in relaxing activities;

  1. Meditation- spending 10-15 minutes seated with your back straight and eyes closed, clearing yours mind while letting any distracting thoughts pass you by and you focus on deep breathing
  2. Release the knots- spend about 10-15 minutes laying down with your eyes closed and scan your body from head to toe releasing any tension
  3. Sujood (Prostration)- After any one of the obligatory prayers spend about 5 minutes in this state, it well help reduce tension in the lower back, knees, and ankles. This spiritual process will also help relieve mental stress as you express gratitude to Allah and hand over your worries to him alone
  4. Decompress- massaging away the tension is a great way to help you relax, you can even do it on your own by using a tennis ball or a foam roller
  5. Listening to Quraan- This can be done on your way to school or work. Listening to soothing sounds has proven to help in relaxing the mind through releasing any tension in the brain. This will also provide a feeling of inner peace.

Written by: Raya Haddass

Reference 
  1. Infante, J., Peran, F., Rayo, J., Serrano, J., Garcia, L., Roldan, A., . . . Duran, C. (2014). Levels of immune cells in transcendental meditation practitioners. International Journal of Yoga, 7(2), 147.
  2.  Nidich, S. I., Rainforth, M. V., Haaga, D. A., Hagelin, J., Salerno, J. W., Travis, F., . . . Schneider, R. H. (2009). A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults. American Journal of Hypertension, 22(12), 1326-1331.
  3. Klainin-Yobas, P., Oo, W. N., Yew, P. Y., & Lau, Y. (2015). Effects of relaxation interventions on depression and anxiety among older adults: a systematic review. Aging & Mental Health, 19(12), 1043-1055.
  4. Harrison , R. F., O’Moore, R. R., & O’Moore, A. M. (1986). Stress and fertility: some modalities of investigation and treatment in couples with unexplained infertility in Dublin. Int J Fertil, 31(2), 153-159.

One Too Many

Sweet treats have a way in everyone’s hearts. We have them at almost every special occasion, from weddings to graduation dates. But for those with a serious sweet tooth, one sweet treat is just never enough. Before you know it, you’ve scarfed down several pieces of baklavas, cakes, ladu, helwa etc.  Not only do these tasty treats have high sugar content (carbohydrates) but also an increased fat content. We all know that too much of any things isn’t good and this goes for our food intake as well. With an increasing consumption of carbohydrates and fats, we place our selves at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and even worsening the symptoms of diabetes for those who already have the disease.

Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine condition that is manifested when an individual is unable to use insulin in their body. There is an evident reduction in insulin receptors and cell insensitivity to insulin (1). Due to this lack of insulin insensitivity, one will encounter difficulty regulating blood glucose levels back to a homeostatic state (normal range). It is an adult onset form of diabetes occurring in persons 40 years and older, indicating that it has a greater occurrence in the aging population. There are several risk factors that contribute to the incidence of this disease such as obesity, high cholesterol, being sedentary, family history, high blood pressure, stress, heritage, and impaired glucose tolerance. Older adults are also more prone to experiencing higher numbers of co-morbidities that are associated with this form of diabetes including arthrosclerosis (hardening of arteries leading to coronary heart disease), loss of vision, neuropathies (damage to nerves), and kidney failure(2).

As stated previously it is evident there are several contributing factors that are associated to type 2 diabetes. By changing some of these factors, one will acquire a better quality of life through the management of their diabetes. One of the modifiable factors is physical inactivity. The reason behind it is increase in physical activity leads to better glucose readings. This is due to a greater insulin sensitivity allowing cells to optimally utilize available insulin to take up glucose during and after exercise (1).  Also when we exercise, our muscles contract and this allows cells to take up glucose to be used as energy whether there is insulin available or not (1). Psychological stress levels is another modifiable risk factor. This risk factor is most often under looked with regards to the management of diabetes. In some cases diabetes may be related to stress. This occurs when psychophysiological over reactivity (caused by stress hormones) appears to initially cause a hyperglycemic response (increase in blood sugars) (3). With people who have type 2 diabetes there isn’t enough insulin to cope with the rise in blood sugars so levels stay elevated. By helping to manage ones stress levels through numerous relaxation techniques, it can alter the physiological effects of psychological stress.

So what can you  do to help better regulate your blood sugars and even prevent the risk of developing diabetes? Here are 4 tips you can start implementing to improve your quality of life:

  1. Engage in 150 minutes of exercise per week as recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Associate; that’s an easy 30 minutes of physical activity 5 days of the week
  2. Set aside 10-15 minutes of your day to simply mediate in a quite space to help reduce stress levels; this can be done during a lunch break or a few minutes before bed
  3. Fast on the days that are Sunnah ( Monday and Thursday); not only will you gain thawaab but you will also help lower blood sugar levels
  4. Reinforce healthier eating habits; this means reduce your intake of fat and carbohydrate rich foods.

Written by: Raya Haddass

References
  1. Ivy, J. (1997). Role of Exercise Training in the Prevention and Treatment of Insulin Resistance and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Sports Medicine, 24(5), 321-336.
  2. Munshi, M., &Lipsitz, L. (2007).Geriatric diabetes. New York: Informa Healthcare.
  3. Wilson, V., & Cummings, M. (2005).Learned Self-Regulation(3rd ed.). Toronto: York Stress Assessment and Management.

A Little Sweat Never Hurt Nobody

As you’re going up the short flight of stairs, you stop, struggling to take your next breath. At that moment, you come to realization that something needs to change.  Physical activity plays an integral role in our overall health status. Therefore, when we neglect setting time aside for physical activity, it can result in a negative impact on our health.

 

We all know that incorporating exercises in our day to day lives is good for our health, but to what extent? One of the many benefits derived through physical activity is that it helps fight against health conditions and disease, one of which being cardiovascular disease. With increase in physical activity, we are able to improve our cholesterol levels by increasing our good cholesterol (HDL) and decreasing our bad cholesterol (LDL) (1). Exercises also provides for a drug free approach to lowering blood pressure through strengthening your heart (1). This allows the heart to pump more blood with less effort. If you’re having trouble falling asleep at night, exercise may just be your answer. Physical activity improves the quality and duration of your sleep (2). It is suggested that the post exercise temperature drop is what promotes the falling asleep as well as the decrease in arousal, anxiety, and depressive symptoms which are commonly linked to insomnia (2). Another well known benefit to exercise is its positive effects on weight management. Regular physical activity has proven to help increase metabolic rate, allowing us to burn more calories resulting in weight loss when coupled with healthy eating habits (3). Last but not least, exercise has also shown to increase energy levels. Now most of you are wonder how this possible since we feel too exhausted to even get off our couch to exercise. The increase in energy occurs at a cellular level. When we exercise, we increase the number of mitochondria in the body so that we are able to produce more available energy for our body (4).

 

As a Muslim it is essential that we take care of our spiritual, emotional and physical health. With a body that is weak, it makes it difficult for us to even full fill the basic 5 pillars of Islam. The performance of our five daily prayers is a form of exercise in its self, which can become difficult due to our weight or disease. Fasting during the month of Ramdhan as well as performing Hajj requires us to be in good health due to the strength that is needed to complete these hard efforts. The prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said “A strong believer is better and is more loveable to Allah than a weak believer” reported by Abu Hurraira (5). This statement translates to both our strength in our faith and our physical strength that is seen to be more desirable.

 

The recommended physical activity guideline for adults (18-64 yrs) is 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity exercise as recommended by the World Health Organisation.  Now this may look like a big number but it’s simply just 30 minutes of exercise 5 days of the week. At this point you’re either convinced you can do it or you’re already planning your list of excuses from “I don’t have any time” to “Gym memberships are too expensive”. Just as we have time to endlessly scroll through out phones, we can find 30 minutes in our day to get active. Exercise does not have to take place at the gym, it can be you going for a brisk walk at the end of your day or during your lunch break. Feel free to ask family or friends to join you as having a buddy can help motive you and create a sense of accountability. You can also utilize the internet by going on Youtube to search for exercise videos. For those of you with kids or younger siblings, join them in their play time when outside on the play ground or field to get your exercise in. It’s never too late to get started on improving your health, make today your day one and take your 30 minutes walk.

 

Written by; Raya Haddass

 

References

  1. Myers, Jonathan. “Exercise and Cardiovascular Health.”Circulation 107, no. 1 (January 07, 2003). doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000048890.59383.8d.
  2. Reid, Kathryn J., Kelly Glazer Baron, Brandon Lu, Erik Naylor, Lisa Wolfe, and Phyllis C. Zee. “Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia.”Sleep Medicine 11, no. 9 (September 1, 2010): 934-40. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2010.04.014.
  3. Church, Tim. “Exercise in Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes.”Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 53, no. 6 (May 2011): 412-18. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2011.03.013.
  4. Menshikova, E. V., V. B. Ritov, L. Fairfull, R. E. Ferrell, D. E. Kelley, and B. H. Goodpaster. “Effects of Exercise on Mitochondrial Content and Function in Aging Human Skeletal Muscle.”The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 61, no. 6 (September 01, 2006): 534-40. doi:10.1093/gerona/61.6.534.
  5. Hadith – The Book of Destiny – Sahih Muslim – Sunnah.com – Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم). Accessed July 25, 2017. https://sunnah.com/urn/369830.

How Much Is Enough?

Now that summer has commenced, the temptations of different mouth watering foods are all around us. From the usual weekend family and friend gatherings, to the endless weddings and events we are invited too. Most of us even go the extent of not eating all day because the goal is to go with an empty stomach in order to fill it to its fullest capacity. At times, we even find ourselves so full that performing salah (prayer) becomes a struggle of its own, yet if tea and more desserts were laid out, we wouldn’t hesitate to reach for more.

Our tendencies of overeating are clearly heightened during the summer months. However, overeating has numerous negative effects on our body. First and for most, studies have shown that short term over eating not only results in short term weight gain, but even long term increase in weight (1). This means that individuals had difficulty reducing the weight since the time it was gained post overeating. Overeating can also have harmful effects on your metabolism due to a large influx of nutrients entering the body at once (2). This results in our metabolism to shut down as the excess nutrients are seen as threats to the body (2). Furthermore, an impaired metabolism can lead to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity (2). Digestive organs such as the kidney, stomach, and liver are also compromised with overeating due to the inability to digest all the food being ingested (3). Last but not least, overeating can also impact our mental health. Our body image and self esteem is largely an outcome of what we feel about our looks (4). Therefore, when we increase in weight, our confidence in ourselves reduces resulting in a negative self image.

When it comes to the religious perspective of overeating, it is too frowned upon.  The prophet Muhammad  (S.A.W) emphasized on eating less as it being an effective method in preventing sickness and disease (5). As narrated by Tirmidi and Ibn Majid the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) said:

“Nothing is worse than a person who fills his stomach. It should be enough for the son of Adam   to have a few bites to satisfy his hunger. If he wishes more, it should be; One-third for food, One-third for liquid, and One-third for breath.”

In Islam we are also advised to avoid extremes in all affairs of our lives and to maintain moderation, this includes the way we approach food (5).

Here are some useful tips to help you practice portion control and avoid overeating;

  • Never go to a social event hungry, have a light snack prior to the event preferably foods that are rich with either protein or fiber ex. Fruits, Vegetables with hummus dip, protein/fiber bar etc.
  • When serving yourself, start by filling half your plate with vegetables avoiding the ones that are drowning in oils, then moving on to the proteins (chicken, fish, beef) being a quarter of the plate, then carbs being the last quarter of the plate
  • Have a glass of water by your side throughout time of the gathering
  • Eat slowly to allow your food to properly digest and prevent you from overeating as you provide your body with sufficient time to signal you when you are full
  • Limit your options; some of us like to try a little bit of everything and before you know it your eating for a family, so try limit yourself to 2 to 3 side dishes
  • Use your hand as guide of how to portion your food ( Guide located on tools and resources page)

Hopefully with these tips we are able to practice moderation in our day to day eating habits. After all let us not forget the saying “A moment on the lips forever on the hips.” 😉

Author; Raya Haddass

Citation:
  1. Ernersson, Åsa, Fredrik H. Nystrom, and Torbjörn Lindström. “Long-term increase of fat mass after a four week intervention with fast food based hyper-alimentation and limitation of physical activity.”Nutrition & Metabolism7, no. 1 (August 25, 2010): 68. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-68.
  2. Nakamura, Takahisa, Masato Furuhashi, Ping Li, Haiming Cao, Gurol Tuncman, Nahum Sonenberg, Cem Z. Gorgun, and Gökhan S. Hotamisligil. “Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Links Pathogen Sensing with Stress and Metabolic Homeostasis.”Cell 140, no. 3 (February 5, 2010): 338-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.001.
  3. Jason Ladock, “Negative Effects of Overeating,”Health Guidence, http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/12344/1/Negative-Effects-of-Over-Eating.html.
  4. Ipatenco, Sara. “What Are the Dangers of Overeating?” Healthy Eating | SF Gate. Accessed July 9, 2017. http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/dangers-overeating-7068.html.
  5. “Islamic Diet & Manners.” Islamic Bulletin. Accessed July 9, 2017. http://www.islamicbulletin.org/newsletters/issue_16/diet.aspx.

Fasting Beyond Ramadhan

Alhamdulillah we were blessed to finish of the month Ramadhan followed by the Eid celebration. May Allah accept all of our fast and ibada, Ameen. As we move into the month of Shawaal we hope to continue the act of good deeds, one of which may be fasting.

Fasting is not only an act of good deed but also has proven to have countless health benefits. You may question this as some of us finished the month of Ramadhan going up a clothing size. But in this case the issue lies in the kinds of foods we choose to consume when we break our fast. Most often, these foods are rich in sugar and fats which lead weight gain. However, when fasting is done right, there is much more to benefit.

Firstly let’s briefly discuss the religious benefits of fasting. Fasting is a form of spiritual healing. This healing takes place through achieving self control by controlling our desires and urgency to act on anger(1). We also achieve this spiritual healing through means of prayer, dhikar, and increased recitation of the Holy Quran (1).  Fasting allows us to place ourselves in the shoes of those whose fasting does not end by choice, as they go hungry for days. With this experience it opens our eyes and hearts towards giving to those in need.

Now let’s us understand the health benefits achieved from fasting. Fasting has proven to help lower blood sugar levels through reducing insulin resistance(2) . This results in a reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. Through fasting we are also able to improve our overall heart health by improving our blood pressure and LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol)(3). Oxidative stress has also proven to be reduced by fasting(4). You may be wonder well what is that? Oxidative stress is one of the steps towards aging and developing chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, COPD, etc(4). Our brain also benefits from fasting as it increases the development of new nerve cells which in turn helps improve brain function (5). Last but not least, fasting can assist in weight loss as it reduced the amount of food you eat as well as boosts your metabolic rate (6).

Now that we have a clear understanding of the religious and health benefits of fasting, let us put this knowledge to action. The Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was to fast Thursdays and Mondays (1). This can also be seen as intermittent fasting in which we fast 2 days a week and five days of non fasting. It is essential that we have nutrient rich foods during the time that is allocated to eat. For example when waking up for suhur before the sun rises, we should be consuming foods that are high in fiber and protein as these foods provide the feeling of satiety (filling sensation)(7). An ideal meal could be;

  • 1-2 cups of oatmeal served with fruits and nuts
  • 1-2 eggs omelette loaded with vegetable such as broccoli, mushrooms, spinach etc served with 1 whole wheat toast
  • 1 whole wheat toast with peanut butter and a glass of milk
  • 1 cup Vegetable chicken soup with 1 whole wheat toast

These are just several examples of some breakfast meals. Be sure to have already 2-3 cups of water prior to suhur ending as this will help keep you hydrated. Stay away from sodium rich foods as well as caffeinated drinks as this dehydrates the body. When time for iftar arises, break the fast with the sunnah of 3 dates and a glass of water (1). Once the Marghib prayer is completed you may then go into your meal. Here are some useful tips;

  • At least half your plate should be filled with vegetables, a quarter of the plate carbohydrates (1 cup), and a quarter protein (3-5 ounces about the size of a deck of cards
  • For the vegetable of choice, avoid over cooking in oils as this will simply increase the fat consumption and kill the valuable nutrients. Stick to baking, steaming, or simply having it raw
  • When choosing a carbohydrate, make sure it is high in fiber for example brown rice, whole wheat bread, whole wheat pasta etc.
  • When choosing a protein be sure to pick proteins that are lean and avoid cooking them in lots of fats.

Lastly we all like to finish of our meals with something sweet. This can consist of either a bowl of fruits or frozen yogurt. Just be sure to practice portion control when reaching for those sweet treats.

By; Raya Haddass

Citation
1. Amina Bint Said, “The Virtues of Fasting on Monday & Thursday!”, Sundus wa Istabarq (blog), December 11,2011, http://sundus-wa-istabraq.blogspot.ca/2011/12/fast-of-monday-thursday.html.
2. Barnosky, Adrienne R., Kristin K. Hoddy, Terry G. Unterman, and Krista A. Varady. “Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings.” Translational Research 164, no. 4 (October 2014): 302-11. doi:10.1016/j.trsl.2014.05.013.
3. Varady, K. A., S. Bhutani, E. C. Church, and M. C. Klempel. “Short-term modified alternate-day fasting: a novel dietary strategy for weight loss and cardioprotection in obese adults.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 90, no. 5 (September 30, 2009): 1138-143. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28380.
4. Bont, R. De. “Endogenous DNA damage in humans: a review of quantitative data.” Mutagenesis 19, no. 3 (May 01, 2004): 169-85. doi:10.1093/mutage/geh025.
5. Lee, J., K. B. Seroogy, and M. P. Mattson. “Dietary restriction enhances neurogenesis and up-regulates neurotrophin expression in the hippocampus of adult mice.” Journal of Neurochemistry 81 (January 21, 2002): 57-59. doi:10.1046/j.1471-4159.81.s1.19_4.x.
6. Johnstone, A. “Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?” International Journal of Obesity 39, no. 5 (December 26, 2014): 727-33. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.214.
7. Halton, Thomas L., and Frank B. Hu. “The Effects of High Protein Diets on Thermogenesis, Satiety and Weight Loss: A Critical Review.” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23, no. 5 (June 15, 2004): 373-85. doi:10.1080/07315724.2004.10719381.